Antepartum Haemorrhage - Treatment of Antepartum Haemorrhage
What is Antepartum Haemorrhage?
Antepartum Haemorrhage is defined as bleeding from the vagina after 24 weeks. The occurrence of multiple pregnancies, hypertensive disorders, diabetes mellitus and antepartum haemorrhage were significantly higher in group I than in the control group. In pregnancy bleeding is usually called antepartum haemorrhage and after the birth it is called postpartum haemorrhage. APH occurs in 2% of pregnancies and is an important cause of foetal and maternal death - 30% of maternal deaths are caused by APH, of which 50% are associated with avoidable factors. When antepartum haemorrhage of any type occurs, the diagnosis of placenta praevia should be suspected and hospital admission advised. Incidental antepartum haetnorrhage is haemorrhage which occurs from the genital tract but not from the site of the placenta or its implantation. Such haemorrhage may result from injury, infection, ulcers on the neck of the womb, polyps or, I1lOstcommonly, the onset of labour.
The diagnosis should be established by ultrasound imaging. Vaginal examination should be performed only in an operating theatre prepared for caesarean section, with blood crossmatched. There are only two indications for performing a vaginal examination:
Causes of Antepartum Haemorrhage
No definite cause is diagnosed in about 40% of all women who present with antepartum haemorrhage. Major causes are -
Treatment of Antepartum Haemorrhage
fever with Rash
Focal Neurological Deficit
Food Poisoning - Bacterial
Heart Disease In Pregnancy
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Ischemic Heart Disease
Intrauterine Growth Retardation